Main Article Content
Objective: Nosocomial infections are those acquired in hospitals or healthcare service units that first appear 48 hours or more after admission or within 30 days after discharge following in-patient care. Knowledge of the bacterial profile and sensitivity patterns of any hospital environment is a key factor in infection control and good antibiotic stewardship.
Material and Methods: This hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the Children’s Emergency Room (CHER) of Enugu State University Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria. Samples for culture were collected from equipment and hospital surfaces. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was determined for each isolate by the Agar diffusion method using Standard Nutrient Agar 1 discs.
Results: Bacterial growth was observed in 83 (70.3%) specimens. Staphylococcus aureus (53.4%) was the most common isolate cultured followed by Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (18.8%), then Escherichia coli (13.9%). Among Staphylococcus aureus isolates, 25.9% were MRSA. Ampicillin resistance of the gram negatives was high. All the Gram-negative isolates were susceptible to Ciprofloxacin and Ceftriaxone.
Conclusion: Staphylococcus aureus, Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, and Escherichia coli were the commonest isolates. More efforts are needed to ensure improved hygiene standards in order to reduce the burden of nosocomial infections.
2. Samuel SO, Kayode OO, Musa OI, Nwigwe GC, Aboderin AO, Salami TA, et al. Nosocomial infections and the challenges of control in developing countries. Afr J Cln Exper Microbiol. 2010 May;11(2):102-110.
3. Worku T, Derseh D, Kumalo A. Bacterial Profile and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of the Isolates from Stethoscope , Thermometer , and Inanimate Surfaces of Mizan-Tepi University Teaching Hospital , Southwest Ethiopia. Int J Microbiol. 2018 Jun 27;2018:1-7
4. Stibich M, Gubb J, Stachowiak J, Chemaly RF, Rodriguez M, Simmons S, et al. The role of the healthcare environment in the spread of multidrug-resistant organisms: update on current best practices for containment. Ther Adv Infect Dis. 2014;2(3–4):79–90.
5. Saka KH, Akanbi II AA, Obasa TO, Raheem RA, Oshodi AJ, Kalgo ZM. Pathogenic Aerobic Bacterial Contaminants on Non-Critical Hospital Surfaces within Paediatric Ward of a Nigerian Hospital. J Med Microbiol Diagn. 2016 Oct 3;5(241):2161-0703.
6. Weber DJ, Rutala WA. Understanding and Preventing Transmission of Healthcare-Associated Pathogens Due to the Contaminated Hospital Environment. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2013 May;34(05):449–52.
7. Dancer SJ. The role of environmental cleaning in the control of hospital-acquired infection. J Hosp Infect. 2009 Sept 1;73(4):378–85.
8. Bhatta DR, Hamal D, Shrestha R, Hosuru Subramanya S, Baral N, Singh RK, et al. Bacterial contamination of frequently touched objects in a tertiary care hospital of Pokhara, Nepal: how safe are our hands? Antimicrob Resist Infect Control. BioMed Central; 2018 Dec;7(1):97.
9. Stone PW, Braccia D, Larson E. Systematic review of economic analyses of health care-associated infections. Am J Infect Control. 2005 Nov;33(9):501–9.
10. Sydnor ERM, Perl TM. Hospital epidemiology and infection control in acute-care settings. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2011 Jan;24(1):141–73.
11. Ochola E, Filia A, Kayanja A, Molteni T, Kellar Ayugi H, Granata V, et al. Prevalence of hospital-associated infections can be decreased effectively in developing countries. J Hosp Infect. 2013 May 1;84(2):138–42.
12. Okon KO, Osundi S, Dibal J, Ngbale T, Bello M, Akuhwa RT, et al. Bacterial contamination of operating theatre and other specialized care unit in a tertiary hospital in Northeastern Nigeria. Afr J Microbiol Res. 2012 Apr 9;6(13):3092-6.
13. Muhammad UK, Isa MA, Aliyu ZM. Distribution of potential nosocomial pathogens isolated from environments of four selected hospital in Sokoto, North Western Nigeria. J Microbiol and Biotech Res. 2013;3(1):139-43.
14. Hammuel C, Jatau ED, Whong CM. Prevalence and antibiogram pattern of some nosocomial pathogens isolated from Hospital Environment in Zaria, Nigeria. Aceh Int J Sci Tech. 2014 Sept 19;3(3):131-9.
15. Yusha’u M, Bukar A, Aliyu BS, Abdulkareem A. Bacterial contamination of some hospital equipments in Kano, Nigeria. Hamdard Medicus. 2012;55(3):39-42.
16. Uneke CJ, Ogbonna A, Oyibo PG, Onu CM. Bacterial contamination of stethoscopes used by health workers: public health implications. J Infect Dev Ctries . 2010 May 11;4(07):436-41.
17. Kesah CN, Egri-Okwaji MT, Iroha E, Odugbemi TO. Aerobic bacterial nosocomial infections in paediatric surgical patients at a tertiary health institution in Lagos, Nigeria. Nig Post Med J. 2004 Mar;11(1):4-9.
18. Odigie AB, Ekhiase FO, Orjiakor PI, Omozuwa S. The role of door handles in the spread of microorganisms of public health consequences in University of Benin Teaching hospital (UBTH), Benin city, Edo state. Pharm Sci Tech. 2017Aug 9;2(2):20-26.
19. Joseph J, Rodvold KA. The role of carbapenems in the treatment of severe nosocomial respiratory tract infections. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2008 Mar 1;9(4):561–75.
20. Houngbegnon O, Doscoph Afle FC, Jerrold Agbankpe A, Houssou SC, Bankole HS, Christian Johnson R. Hospital Acquired Infection: Bacteriological Profile of Species from Environmental Surfaces of Cotonou 5 Hospital in South Benin (West Africa). Int J Curr Microbiol Appl Sci. 2018 Apr 10;7(04):1503–15.
21. Taylor TA, Unakal CG. Staphylococcus aureus. StatPearls [Internet]. 2019 Jan [cited 2019 May 12] Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK441868/
22. Garcia-Cruz CP, Josefina M, Aguilar N, Arroyo-Helguera OE. Fungal and Bacterial Contamination on Indoor Surfaces of a Hospital in Mexico. Jundishapur J Microbiol. 2012 Jul 1;5(3):460-464.
23. Greenwood D, Slack RC, Barer MR, Irving WL. Medical Microbiology E-Book: A Guide to Microbial Infections: Pathogenesis, Immunity, Laboratory Diagnosis and Control. Elsevier Health Sciences; 2012.
24. Patil HV, Patil VC, Ramteerthkar MN, Kulkarni RD. Central venous catheter-related bloodstream infections in the intensive care unit. Indian J Crit Care Med. 2011 Oct-Dec; 15(4): 213–223.
25. Khan HA, Ahmad A, Mehboob R. Nosocomial infections and their control strategies. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2015 Jun 16;5(7):509-14.
26. Shiferaw T, Beyene G, Kassa T, Sewunet T. Bacterial contamination, bacterial profile and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of isolates from stethoscopes at Jimma University Specialized Hospital. Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob. 2013 Dec 13;12(1):39.
27. Richards DM, Brogden RN. Ceftazidime. Drugs. 1985 Feb 1;29(2):105-61.
28. Foster TJ. Antibiotic resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. Current status and future prospects. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2017 May 1;41(3):430-49.
29. Rawat D, Nair D. Extended-spectrum β-lactamases in Gram Negative Bacteria. J Glob Infect Dis. 2010 Sep;2(3):263.
30. Cleaning Standard for South Australian Healthcare Facilities. Government of South Australia [Internet]. 2017 Dec [cited 2019 May 12] Available from: https://www.sahealth.sa.gov.au/wps/wcm/connect/18741180499970f0891e8faa8650257d/SA-Health-cleaning-standard-2014_%28v1.1%29-cdcb-ics-20180301.pdf?MOD=AJPERES&CACHEID=ROOTWORKSPACE-18741180499970f0891e8faa8650257d-mMENa7P