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Objective: Myeloid growth factors have been often used in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation settings. There are some controversies about increased graft versus host disease, relapse, and delayed platelet engraftment with those growth factors in the pre-engraftment period. In this study, we aimed to compare the transplantation outcomes of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients according to their myeloid growth factor support status.
Materials and Methods: Sixty-seven adult acute myeloid leukemia/myelodysplastic syndrome and acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients who underwent allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation from HLA-identical matched sibling donors were analyzed retrospectively. All-cause mortality at day 100, day 180, and at 1-year were the primary outcome measures. Secondary outcome measures were the engraftment kinetics, length of hospital stay, and graft-versus-host disease incidences.
Results: Growth factor supported group was younger (p=0.001), and the first complete remission status at transplantation was seen more compared to the unsupported group (p=0.04). Myeloablative conditioning was used more in growth factor supported group (p=0.004). Faster neutrophil engraftment (p=0.008) and delayed platelet engraftment (p=0.022) were seen in growth factor supported group. Graft-versus-host disease, relapse incidences, and all-cause mortality at day 100, day 180, and at 1-year were not different between groups. Steroid-resistant graft-versus-host disease was the only factor related with relapse (OR: 0.196, p=0.043).
Conclusion: This real-life study shows colony-stimulating-factors are safe in HLA-identical sibling allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Further prospective randomized controlled studies for different stem cell sources, different donors, and different conditioning and graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis regimens are mandatory.
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