Main Article Content
Objective: Adolescence is a critical period for the maturation of neurobiological processes that underlie higher cognitive functions and social and emotional behaviour. However, there are limited studies that investigated brain volumes in healthy adolescents and young persons. The aim of this study was to compare the Grey Matter (GM), White Matter (WM) and some specific brain subcortical volumes such as hippocampus and amygdala between healthy adolescents and young groups by using VolBrain.
Material and Methods: Magnetic resonance imaging brain scans were retrospectively obtained from 20 healthy adolescent and young subjects. The mean ages of the adolescent and young persons were 13±1 and 24±2, respectively. Brain parenchyma (BP), GM, WM and asymmetry features were calculated using VolBrain, and the GM and WM volumes of each subjects were compared with those of the both groups. The current study to examine whether regional gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), some brain subcortical structures volumes differed between healthy adolescent and young groups. Also, of the whole brain, hemispheres, and hippocampus, amigdala of adolescent and young subject volumes were measured with an automated method.
Results: We have observed that the young group was found to have a 4 % less in volume of GM, when compared with adolescent groups.
Conclusion: Our data indicate that quantitative structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data of the adolescent brain is important in understanding the age-related human morphological changes.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
2. Meeus W. Adolescent psychosocial development: A review of longitudinal models and research. Dev Psychol. 2016;52(12):1969-93.
3. Spear LP. The adolescent brain and age-related behavioural manifestations. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2000;24(4):417-63.
4. Avenevoli S, Swendsen J, He JP, Burstein M, Merikangas KR. Major depression in the national comorbidity survey-adolescent supplement: prevalence, correlates, and treatment. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2015;54(1):37-44 e2.
5. Giedd JN, Lalonde FM, Celano MJ, White SL, Wallace GL, Lee NR, et al. Anatomical brain magnetic resonance imaging of typically developing children and adolescents. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2009;48(5):465-70.
6. Giedd JN, Rumsey JM, Castellanos FX, Rajapakse JC, Kaysen D, Vaituzis AC, et al. A quantitative MRI study of the corpus callosum in children and adolescents. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 1996;91(2):274-80.
7. Giedd JN, Blumenthal J, Jeffries NO, Rajapakse JC, Vaituzis AC, Liu H, et al. Development of the human corpus callosum during childhood and adolescence: a longitudinal MRI study. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 1999;23(4):571-88.
8. Yurgelun-Todd DA, Killgore WD, Young AD. Sex differences in cerebral tissue volume and cognitive performance during adolescence. Psychol Rep. 2002;91(3 Pt 1):743-57.
9. Goldstein JM, Seidman LJ, Horton NJ, Makris N, Kennedy DN, Caviness VS, Jr., et al. Normal sexual dimorphism of the adult human brain assessed by in vivo magnetic resonance imaging. Cereb Cortex. 2001;11(6):490-7.
10. Miguel-Hidalgo JJ. Brain structural and functional changes in adolescents with psychiatric disorders. Int J Adolesc Med Health. 2013;25(3):245-56.
11. Wilke M, Kowatch RA, DelBello MP, Mills NP, Holland SK. Voxel-based morphometry in adolescents with bipolar disorder: first results. Psychiatry Res. 2004;131(1):57-69.
12. Janssen J, Reig S, Parellada M, Moreno D, Graell M, Fraguas D, et al. Regional gray matter volume deficits in adolescents with first-episode psychosis. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2008;47(11):1311-20.
13. Herten A, Konrad K, Krinzinger H, Seitz J, von Polier GG. Accuracy and bias of automatic hippocampal segmentation in children and adolescents. Brain structure & function. 2019;224(2):795-810.
14. Huhtaniska S, Jaaskelainen E, Heikka T, Moilanen JS, Lehtiniemi H, Tohka J, et al. Long-term antipsychotic and benzodiazepine use and brain volume changes in schizophrenia: The Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 study. Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging. 2017;266:73-82.
15. Manjon JV, Coupe P. volBrain: An Online MRI Brain Volumetry System. Frontiers in neuroinformatics. 2016;10:30.
16. Wang Y, Xu Q, Li S, Li G, Zuo C, Liao S, et al. Gender differences in anomalous subcortical morphology for children with ADHD. Neuroscience letters. 2018;665:176-81.
17. Acer N, Bastepe-Gray S, Sagiroglu A, Gumus KZ, Degirmencioglu L, Zararsiz G, et al. Diffusion tensor and volumetric magnetic resonance imaging findings in the brains of professional musicians. J Chem Neuroanat. 2018;88:33-40.
18. Cantou P, Platel H, Desgranges B, Groussard M. How motor, cognitive and musical expertise shapes the brain: Focus on fMRI and EEG resting-state functional connectivity. J Chem Neuroanat. 2018;89:60-8.
19. Giedd JN. Structural magnetic resonance imaging of the adolescent brain. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004;1021:77-85.
20. Shan ZY, Liu JZ, Sahgal V, Wang B, Yue GH. Selective atrophy of left hemisphere and frontal lobe of the brain in old men. The journals of gerontology Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences. 2005;60(2):165-74.
21. Casey BJ, Tottenham N, Liston C, Durston S. Imaging the developing brain: what have we learned about cognitive development? Trends in cognitive sciences. 2005;9(3):104-10.
22. Hariri AR, Bookheimer SY, Mazziotta JC. Modulating emotional responses: effects of a neocortical network on the limbic system. Neuroreport. 2000;11(1):43-8.
23. Hariri AR, Mattay VS, Tessitore A, Fera F, Weinberger DR. Neocortical modulation of the amygdala response to fearful stimuli. Biol Psychiatry. 2003;53(6):494-501.
24. Tebartz van Elst L, Hesslinger B, Thiel T, Geiger E, Haegele K, Lemieux L, et al. Frontolimbic brain abnormalities in patients with borderline personality disorder: a volumetric magnetic resonance imaging study. Biol Psychiatry. 2003;54(2):163-71.
25. Whittle S, Yap MB, Yucel M, Fornito A, Simmons JG, Barrett A, et al. Prefrontal and amygdala volumes are related to adolescents' affective behaviours during parent-adolescent interactions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105(9):3652-7.
26. Hare TA, Tottenham N, Davidson MC, Glover GH, Casey BJ. Contributions of amygdala and striatal activity in emotion regulation. Biol Psychiatry. 2005;57(6):624-32.
27. Groen W, Teluij M, Buitelaar J, Tendolkar I. Amygdala and hippocampus enlargement during adolescence in autism. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2010;49(6):552-60.
28. Blumberg HP, Kaufman J, Martin A, Whiteman R, Zhang JH, Gore JC, et al. Amygdala and hippocampal volumes in adolescents and adults with bipolar disorder. Archives of general psychiatry. 2003;60(12):1201-8.
29. Merz EC, He X, Noble KG, Pediatric Imaging N, Genetics S. Anxiety, depression, impulsivity, and brain structure in children and adolescents. Neuroimage Clin. 2018;20:243-51.
30. Douaud G, Mackay C, Andersson J, James S, Quested D, Ray MK, et al. Schizophrenia delays and alters maturation of the brain in adolescence. Brain : a journal of neurology. 2009;132(Pt 9):2437-48.
31. Jernigan TL, Trauner DA, Hesselink JR, Tallal PA. Maturation of human cerebrum observed in vivo during adolescence. Brain : a journal of neurology. 1991;114 ( Pt 5):2037-49.
32. Pfefferbaum A, Mathalon DH, Sullivan EV, Rawles JM, Zipursky RB, Lim KO. A quantitative magnetic resonance imaging study of changes in brain morphology from infancy to late adulthood. Archives of neurology. 1994;51(9):874-87.
33. Reiss AL, Abrams MT, Singer HS, Ross JL, Denckla MB. Brain development, gender and IQ in children. A volumetric imaging study. Brain : a journal of neurology. 1996;119 ( Pt 5):1763-74.
34. Durston S, Hulshoff Pol HE, Casey BJ, Giedd JN, Buitelaar JK, van Engeland H. Anatomical MRI of the developing human brain: what have we learned? J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2001;40(9):1012-20.
35. Caglayan B, Kilic E, Dalay A, Altunay S, Tuzcu M, Erten F, et al. Allyl isothiocyanate attenuates oxidative stress and inflammation by modulating Nrf2/HO-1 and NF-κB pathways in traumatic brain injury in mice. Molecular biology reports. 2019;46(1):241-50.
36. Cankaya S, Cankaya B, Kilic U, Kilic E, Yulug B. The therapeutic role of minocycline in Parkinson's disease. Drugs in context. 2019;8:212553.
37. Paul A. Lapchak, Zhang JH. Neuroprotective Therapy for Stroke and Ischemic Disease: Springer International Publishing; 2017.
38. Yulug B. Neuroprotective treatment strategies for poststroke mood disorders: A minireview on atypical neuroleptic drugs and selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors. Brain research bulletin. 2009;80(3):95-9.
39. Yulug B, Hanoglu L, Khanmammadov E, Duz OA, Polat B, Hanoglu T, et al. Beyond The Therapeutic Effect of rTMS in Alzheimer's Disease: A Possible Neuroprotective Role of Hippocampal BDNF? : A Minireview. Mini reviews in medicinal chemistry. 2018;18(17):1479-85.
40. Yuluğ B, Ozan E, Kilic E. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor polymorphism as a genetic risk for depression? A short review of the literature. The Journal of neuropsychiatry and clinical neurosciences. 2010;22(1):123.e5-6.
41. Gogtay N, Thompson PM. Mapping gray matter development: implications for typical development and vulnerability to psychopathology. Brain and cognition. 2010;72(1):6-15.
42. Giedd JN, Castellanos FX, Rajapakse JC, Vaituzis AC, Rapoport JL. Sexual dimorphism of the developing human brain. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 1997;21(8):1185-201.
43. Akudjedu TN, Nabulsi L, Makelyte M, Scanlon C, Hehir S, Casey H, et al. A comparative study of segmentation techniques for the quantification of brain subcortical volume. Brain imaging and behaviour. 2018;12(6):1678-95.