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Objective: Hyperglycemia caused by Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is associated with long-term dysfunction such as diabetic retinopathy (DRP). The most effective growth factor in the development of DRP is the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Vitamin K1 reduces hyperglycemia and prevents the development of DM. In this study, we aimed to create streptozotocin (STZ) induced DM and DRP in chick embryos and to show whether vitamin K1 can prevent early-stage DRP by measuring VEGF levels.
Material and Methods: The 140 specific pathogen-free (SPF) fertilized chicken eggs were used in this study. Three different STZ doses were administered to 120 SPF eggs for an induced DM model. Three different vitamin K1 doses were administered in each STZ dose group. On the 12th day and 18th day the remaining 20 SPF eggs were separated as control groups. On the 18th-day, blood glucose, blood insulin and VEGF levels were measured.
Results: 0.45 mg/egg STZ dose (STZ3) was determined as the optimal/ideal dose for the DM model. When the group-administered STZ3 and vitamin K1 were evaluated among themselves; it was determined that there were significant changes in blood glucose, blood insulin, VEGF levels of the STZ3+K1-3 group compared to the STZ3+K1-1 and STZ3+K1-2 groups (p<0.05).
Conclusion: Vitamin K1 increases blood insulin levels and decreases blood glucose levels. When hyperglycemia reduces, the VEGF levels reduce. Vitamin K1 protects from DRP by reducing VEGF levels.
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