Main Article Content
Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between hopelessness and perceived social support levels of parents with children with congenital heart disease (CHD).
Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted with parents of children who underwent surgery for CHD, and data were collected from 100 parents who agreed to participate in the study. A descriptive information form for the sociodemographic characteristics of the parents, “Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS)” and “Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS)” were used to collect the data. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and Spearman’s correlation tests.
Results: The mean score of the hopelessness level of the parents participating in the study was 6.15±4.23, and the mean perceived general social support score was 69.55±15.47. There was a significant negative correlation between the hopelessness levels of mothers and social support (SS) received from the family, from significant others, and general SS scores. There was a significant positive correlation between the hopelessness levels of the mothers and the SS level received from the family (p<0.05).
Conclusion: In this study, the parents of children with CHD have low levels of hopelessness and perceived SS levels are high. Moreover, the relationship between hopelessness and perceived SS levels varies according to the sex of the parents. In our study, the SS level of mothers had a higher effect on the hopelessness level. It is recommended that the SS levels of the parents of children with CHD should be increased to help them cope with hopelessness.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) 2017 Congenital Heart Disease Collaborators. Global, regional, and national burden of congenital heart disease, 1990-2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. The Lancet. Child & Adolescent Health 2020;4(3):185–200.
Gilboa SM, Salemi JL, Nembhard WN, Fixer DE, Correa A. Mortality resulting from congenital heart disease among children and adults in the United States, 1999 to 2006. Circulation 2020;122(22):2254-63.
Oster ME, Lee KA, Honein MA, Riehle-Colorusso T, Shin M, Correa A. Temporal trends in survival among infants with critical congenital heart defects. Pediatrics 2013;131(5): 1502-8.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2019, November 12). Congenital heart defects (CHDs). Access address: http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/heartdefects/data.html. Date of access: 09.12.2020.
Kolaitis GA, Meentken MG, & Utens E. Mental health problems in parents of children with congenital heart disease. Frontiers in Pediatrics 2017; 5:102.
Harvey KA, Kovalesky A, Woods RK, Loan RA. Experiences of mothers of infants with congenital heart disease before, during, and after complex cardiac surgery. Heart & Lung 2013; 42:399-406.
Biber S, Andonian C, Beckmann J, Ewert P, Freilinger S, Nagdyman N et al. Current research status on the psychological situation of parents of children with congenital heart disease. Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy 2019;9(2):369–76.
Yagmur Y & Oltuluoglu H. Social support and hopelessness in women undergoing ınfertility treatment in eastern Turkey. Public Health Nursing 2012;29(2): 99-104.
Ozer Gok F, Tascı Beydag KD, Cengiz S, Kiper S. Hopelessness levels of patients undergoing hemodialysis. Fırat Health Services Journal 2009;4(10):123-35.
Ayaz S, Yaman ES, Korukluoglu S. Level of perceived social support of patients with gynaecological cancer and affecting factors. Türkiye Klinikleri Journal Medicine Sciences 2008; 28:880-5.
Madani H, Pourmemari M, Moghimi M, Rashvand F. Hopelessness, perceived social support and their relationship in Iranian patients with cancer. Asia-Pasific Journal of Oncology Nursing 2018;5(3): 314-19.
Pehlivan S, Ovayol O, Ovayol N, Sevinc A, Camci C. Relationship between hopelessness, loneliness, and perceived social support from family in Turkish patients with cancer. Support Care Cancer 2012;20(4):733-9.
Yildirim H, Isik K, Firat TY, Aylaz R. Determining the correlation between social support and hopelessness of Syrian refugees living in Turkey. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Service 2020;58(7): 27-33.
Deng L, Wang H, Chen J, Li L. Social support and negative emotion in parents of children with congenital heart disease before operation. Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2013;38(9): 915-9.
Lawoko S, Soares JJF. Distress and hopelessness among parents of children with congenital heart disease, parents of children with other disease, and parents of healthy children. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 2002; 52:193-208.
Silva GVD, Moraes DEB, Konstantyner T, Leite HP. Social support and quality of life of families with children with congenital heart disease. Ciência & Saùde Coletiva 2020;25 (8):3153-62.
Beck AT, Weissman A, Lester D, Trexler L. The measurement of pessimism: The hopelessness scale. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psycholgy 1974;42: 861-65.
Seber G, Dilbaz N, Kaptanoğlu C, Tekin D. The hopelessness scale: validity and reliability. Journal of Crisis 1991;1(3): 139-42.
Durak A, Palabıyıkoglu R. Beck hopelessness scale validity study. Turkish Journal of Psychology 1994; 9(31):1-11.
Zimet G, Dahlem N, Zimet S, Farley G. The multidimensional scale of perceived social support. Journal of Personality Assessment 1988;52(1):30-41.
Eker D, Arkar H, Yaldız H. Factorial structure, validity, and reliability of revised form of the multidimensional scale of perceived social support. Turkish Journal of Psychiatry 2001;12(1):17-25.
Kostak MA, Avci G. Hopelessness and depression levels of parents of children with cancer. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention 2013;14(11),6833-8.
López R, Frangini P, Ramírez M, Valenzuela PM. Well-being and agency in parents of children with congenital heart disease: a survey in chile. World Journal for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Surgery 2016;7(2):139-45. doi:10.1177/2150135115623284.
Deveci M, Ahmetoglu E. Examination of the level Perceived social support by the families with mentally retarded children. Balkan and Near Eastern Journal of Social Sciences 2018;4(2):123-31.
Akandere M, Acar M, Baştug G. Investigating the hopelessness and life satisfaction levels of the parents with mentally disabled child. Selçuk University Social Sciences Institute Journal 2009; 12:24-32.
Durat G, Atmaca GD, Unsal A, Kama N. Hopelessness and depression in the families of children with special needs. Osmangazi Medical Journal 2017; 39(3): 49-57.
Yildirim A, Yildirim MS. Hopelessness of mothers who have children with Down syndrome. Genetic Counseling 2010;21(4): 375.
Catalbas M, Greengrocer G, Ocakçı AF. Family-oriented nursery approach to despair levels of the parents of children with cardiac disease and down syndrome . Marmara University Institute of Health Sciences Journal 2015;5(3): 154-61.
Hoekstra-Weebers JE, Jaspers JP, Kamps WA, Clip EC. Psychological adaptation and social support of parents of pediatric cancer patients: A prospective longitudinal study. Journal of Pediatric Psychology 2001; 26:225-35.
Almesned S, Al-Akhfash A, Mesned AA. Social impact on families of children with complex congenital heart disease. Annals of Saudi Medicine 2013;33(2):140–43.
Azhar AS, Alshammasi ZH, Higgi RE. The impact of congenital heart diseases on the quality of life of patients and their families in Saudi Arabia. Biological, psychological, and social dimensions. Saudi Medical Journal 2016;37(4),392-402.
Lumsden MR, Smith DM, Wittkowski A. Coping in parents of children with congenital heart disease: a systematic review and meta-synthesis. Journal of Child and Family Studies 2019; 28:1736-53.
Uzger A, Baspınar O, Bulbul F, Yavuz S, Kilinc M. Evaluation of depression and anxiety in parents of children undergoing cardiac catheterization. Archieves of the Turkish Society of the Cardiology 2015;43(6):536–41.
Eslami B, Kovacs AH, Moons P, Abbasi K, Jackson JL. Hopelessness among adults with congenital heart disease: Cause for despair or hope?. International Journal of Cardiology 2017;230:64-9.
Bayat M, Erdem E, Gul Kuzucu E. Depression, anxiety, hopelessness, and social support levels of the parents of children with cancer. Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing 2008;25(5):247-53.
Golfenshtein N, Deatrick JA, Lisanti AJ, Medoff-Cooper B. Coping with the stress in the cardiac intensive care unit: can mindfulness be the answer? Journal of Pediatric Nursing 2017; 37:117-26.