Effect of some toxic metals in drinking water on male reproductive hormones
Main Article Content
Objective: Drinking water contaminated with toxic metals can be a leading cause of infertility in males. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of some toxic metals and trace elements in drinking water and reproductive hormone levels in males who drink water from these sources in Sabongida-Ora , Edo State, Nigeria.
Material and Methods: A total of 90 subjects consisting of 30 subjects who drink borehole water, 30 subjects who drink water from hand-dug well, and 30 subjects who drink table water, aged between 18 and 45 years, were recruited for this study. Serum reproductive hormones were analyzed using ELISA method. Blood lead, cadmium, serum zinc, and copper were analyzed using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The data obtained were analyzed using SPSS version 23.0.
Results: Blood Cd and Pb levels were significantly higher (P<0.05) in hand-dug, borehole and treated water consumers while serum Zn level was significantly lower P<0.05) in hand-dug well and borehole water consumers than treated table water consumers. The serum Cu level was not significantly different between the groups. The reproductive hormones were significantly lower among hand-dug well and borehole water consumers than treated table water consumers (p<0.05), while PROL(P<0.05) was significantly higher among hand-dug well, borehole water consumers than treated water consumers. Serum PROL correlated positively with Pb (r=0.443; P<0.05) and negatively with serum Zn (r=-0.404; P<0.05) while T correlated positively (r=0.542; P<0.005) with Zn. Similarly, FSH correlated negatively with Pb (r=-0.398; P<0.05) and positively with Zn (r=0.422;P<0.05), while LH correlated inversely with Cd (r=-0.622;P<0.05) and positively with Zn (r=0.745; P<0.05). Expectedly, Cd and Pb were higher while Cu and Zn were lower in hand-dug well water consumers than borehole water consumers.
Conclusion: Water consumption from hand-dug wells may have adverse reproductive sequelae among consumers.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
World Health Organization (WHO): Guidelines for drinking-water quality. Fourth edition World Health Organization, Geneva,2011, 7-9
US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA): Regulated drinking water Contaminants Online database ,2015.
Central Intelligent Agency (C.I.A) :The World Fact book,2016.
Bryan GW, Langston WJ. Bioavailability, accumulation and effects of heavy metals in sediments with special reference to United Kingdom estuaries: a review. Environmental Pollution. 1992;76: 89 – 131
Alabdula’aly AI, Khan MA. Heavy metals in cooler waters in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Environmental Monitor Assess. 2009; 157: 23 – 28.
Adeyemi I, Chris D, Andrea C, Kate R, Peter B, Charlotte G, et al. Psychosomatic medicine .2013;75 (2), 211-221
Vodela JK, Renden JA, Lenz SD, Henney WH, kemppainen BW. Drinking water contaminations, Poultry Science.1997;76:1474-1492
World Health Organization (WHO): Working together for health. Geneva 2006;1-2.
Kolo BG, Jibrin MD, Ishaku IN. Elemental analysis of Tap and Borehole water in Maiduguri, semi arid region, Nigeria. Environ J of Sci.2009; 1(2) 26-29
Srivastava S, Goyal P. Decontamination of Toxic Metals from Waste water. Novel Biomaterials. 2010;12: 7 – 9
Brathwaite RL, Rabone SD. Heavy Metal Sulphide Deposits and Geochemical Surveys for Heavy Metals in New Zealand. Jour of the Royal Soc of New Zealand. 1985;15(4): 363 – 370.
Mishr S, Martin L, Lalumière R, Williams, J. Personality and Individual Differences. 2010 ; 616-621.
Harvey PJ, Handley HK, Taylor MP. Identification of the sources of metal (lead) contamination in drinking waters in northeastern Tasmania using lead isotopic Compositions. Environ Sci and Pol Research. 2015; 22: 12276 – 12288
Pezzarossa B, Gorini F, Petruzelli G. Heavy Metal and Selenium Distribution and Bioavailability in Contaminated Sites. A Tool for Phytoremediation. In Selim, HM. Dynamics and Bioavailability of Heavy Metals in the Rootzone. 2011;11: 93–128.
Landis WG, Sofield RM, Yu MH. Introduction to Environmental Toxicology: Molecular Substructures to Ecological Landscapes. (4th): 2000;CRC Press.p.23-28
Vander A, Sherman J, Luciano D. Human physiology: The Mechanisms of Body Function. (7th edition). Smith Jour of Medicine North Am. 56: 8 – 11
Lwange SK, Lemeshow S.Sample size determination in health studies: A practical manual. IRIS, World Health Organization, 1991.
Emokpae MA, Oyakhire FO. Levels of some reproductive hormones, cadmium and lead among fuel pump attendants in Benin City, Nigeria. Afr Jour of Med and Health Sciences.2020; 19(6), 70-77
Emokpae AM, Uadia PO, Omale-Itodo A, Orok TN. Male infertility and endocrinopathies in Kano, Northwest, Nigeria: Ann of Afric Med .2007; 6:64-67
Marcovecchio JE, Botte SE, Freije RH. Heavy Metals, Major Metals, Trace Elements. In: Handbook of Water Analysis. L.M. Nollet, (Ed.). 2nd Edn. London:CRC Press, 2007; pp: 275-311
Momodu MA, Anyakara CA. Heavy Metal Contamination of Ground Water: The Surulere Case Study. Res Jour Environ and Earth Sciences 2010;2(1): 39-43.
Emokpae MA, Adobor CA. Association of seminal plasma cadmium levels with semen quality in non-occupationally exposed infertile Nigerian males. J of Environ and Occupational Sciences.2015;3(4):40-43
Lauwerys RR. Health Effects of Cadmium. In: Trace Metal: Exposure and Health Effects. E. Di Ferrante, (Ed.). Oxford, England: Pergamon Press, 1979;page: 43-64.
Orisakwe OE, Igwilo IO, Afonne OJ, Maduabuchi JU ,Obi E, Nduka JC.Heavy metal hazards of sachet water in Nigeria. Arch of Environ and Occupational. Health.2006; 61(5): 209-213.
Hammer MJ, Hammer Junior MJ. Water Quality. In: Water and Waste Water Technology. 5th Edition. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.2004; page: 139-159.
World Health Organization: Hazardous Chemicals in Human and Environmental Health: A Resource Book for School, College and University Students. World Health Organization, Geneva 2000; 4-6
Adepoju-Bello AA, Alabi OM. Heavy metals: A review. The Nigeria J Pharm. 2005;37: 41-45.
Emokpae MA, Adobor C, Ibadin K . Seminal Plasma levels of lead and mercury in infertile males in Benin City, Nigeria. International Journal of Medical Research and Health Sciences.2016; 5(1):1-6.
Berman E. Toxic Metals and Their Analysis.Philadelphia, PA: Hayde and Sons.1980.
Zietz BP, Lap Suchenwirth JR. Assessment and management of tap water Lead contamination in Lower Saxon, Germany. Intern J of Environ Health Research,2007;17(6): 407-418.
Needleman HL. The current status of childhood low-level lead toxicity. Neurotoxicology. 1993;14: 161-166
Al-Rudainy LA.: Blood lead level among fuel station workers. Oman Medical Journal. 2010;25: 208 – 211.
Al-Shamri AM, Nama RS, Radhi AW, Odda FM. Determination of Lead , Cupper, Iron , and Zinc in Blood of Fuel Station Worker at Al – Najaf City. Iraq Academic Scient Journal. 2010;15: 1 – 10.
Gaur S, Agrawal S, Saxena S, Kumar GR, Kumar D. Biological Effect of Heavy Metal in Drinking Water samples of Western Uttar Pradesh region in India. Indian J of Toxic Hazard Substance Environmental Engineering. 2012; 34: 7 – 17s
Buzcu-Guven B, Harriss R. Extent, impacts and remedies of global gas Flaring and venting. Carbon Management. 2012;3(1): 95 – 108.
Akinloye O, Arowojolu AO, Shittu OB, Anetor JI. Cadmium Toxicity: A possible cause of male infertility in Nigeria Reproductive Biology.2006; 6:17 – 30.
Umeyama T, Ishikawa H, Takeshima H, Yoshi S, Koiso K. A comparative study of seminal trace elements in fertile and infertile men. Fertility Sterility.1986; 46: 494 – 499
Makada MT, Amith S. Levels of Cadmium, Chromium, Nickel , Manganese and Lead in normal and pathological human seminal plasma. Urologia, 2005;72: 461 – 464.
Corradi PF, Corradi RB, Greene LW. Physiology of the hypothalamic pituitary gonadal axis in the male. Urology Clinician; 2016;43(2): 151-162.
Tesarik J, Bahceci M. Restoration of fertility by in-vitro spermatogenesis. Lancet 1999; 353(9152): 555-556
Telisman S, Colak B, Pizent A, Jurasoviæ J,Cvitkoviæ P. Reproductive toxicity of low-level lead exposure in men. Environ Res. 2007;105: 256.
UNESCO : Ground Water Pollution. International Hydrological Programme. Guidelines for drinking water quality, 4th edition.2000
Nardia P, Fábio S, Evangelist AB, Luciano TB, Tatiana D, Saint´Pierre B, et al. Food Chemistry. 2009;112. Pages 727-732.
Hanuman -Reddy PM, Prasad AV, Reddy RV. Determination of heavy metals in Surface and Groundwater in and around.2012