Speech characteristics of parkinson disease

Main Article Content

Zeynep Zeliha Sonkaya
Mustafa Ceylan
Ali Rıza Sonkaya


Objective: Parkinson Disease (PD) is known the second most frequent neurodegenerative age-related disorder after Alzheimer’s disease. Although over the six million people worldwide suffer from PD, the main cause of the disease remains are unknown. Speech and language impairments have emerged in most patients with PD during the course of the disease. However, clinical profiles or characteristics that might differentiate individuals with PD who are predisposed to speech and language deficits are generally overlooked. Moreover, factors that expedite language disability have still been remained elusive. It is thought that the awareness of speech and language impairments in PD can significantly help to maintain language abilities as the disease progresses and also may contribute to improving communication skills with patients. For this reason, the present study aims to constitute a comprehensive frame for the speech and language characteristics of individuals with PD


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Sonkaya, Z. Z., Ceylan, M., & Sonkaya , A. R. . (2021). Speech characteristics of parkinson disease. Medical Science and Discovery, 8(12), 666–670. https://doi.org/10.36472/msd.v8i12.645
Review Article
Received 2021-12-09
Accepted 2021-12-25
Published 2021-12-27


Liu L, Luo X-G, Dy C-L, Ren Y, Feng Y, Yu H-M, et al. Characteristics of language impairment in Parkinson’s disease and its influencing factors. Translational Neurodegeneration. 2015;4(1):1-8.

Sonkaya AR, Ceylan M. The investigation of alexithymia in patients with Parkinson disease. Gülhane Tip Dergisi. 2019;61(3):93.

Yang S, Wang F, Yang L, Xu F, Luo M, Chen X, et al. The physical significance of acoustic parameters and its clinical significance of dysarthria in parkinson’s disease. Scientific Reports. 2020;10(1):1-9.

Dashtipour K, Tafreshi A, Lee J, Crawley B. Speech disorders in Parkinson's disease: pathophysiology, medical management and surgical approaches. Neurodegenerative disease management. 2018;8(5):337-48.

Muñoz-Vigueras N, Prados-Román E, Valenza MC, Granados-Santiago M, Cabrera-Martos I, Rodríguez-Torres J, et al. Speech and language therapy treatment on hypokinetic dysarthria in Parkinson disease: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Clinical Rehabilitation. 2020:0269215520976267.

BAYAZIT ZZ, SONKAYA AR. Multipl Skleroz Erken Tanısında Ses Analizi Yönteminin Kullanılabilirliğinin İncelenmesi. Online Türk Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi. 2019;4(4):413-27.

Atarachi J, Uchida E. A clinical study of Parkinsonism. Re cent Adv Res Nerv Syst 1959; 3: 871. 1959;882.

Zarifkar P, Kim J, La C, Zhang K, YorkWilliams S, Levine TF, et al. Cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease is associated with Default Mode Network subsystem connectivity and cerebrospinal fluid Aβ. Parkinsonism & Related Disorders. 2021;83:71-8.

Cohen H. Disorders of speech and language in Parkinson’s disease. Mental and behavioral dysfunction in movement disorders: Springer; 2003. p. 125-34.

Peacher WG. The etiology and differential diagnosis of dysarthria. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders. 1950;15(3):252-65.

Fernández-García S, Dumitrache CG, González-López JA. Acoustic analysis of the voice in patients with Parkinson's disease and hypokinetic dysarthria. Revista de Logopedia, Foniatría y Audiología. 2020.

Watts CR. A retrospective study of long-term treatment outcomes for reduced vocal intensity in hypokinetic dysarthria. BMC Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders. 2016;16(1):1-7.

Sveinbjornsdottir S. The clinical symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Journal of neurochemistry. 2016;139:318-24.

Oguz H, Tunc T, Safak MA, Inan L, Kargin S, Demirci M. Objective voice changes in nondysphonic Parkinson's disease patients. Journal of otolaryngology. 2006;35(5).

Wight S, Miller N. Lee Silverman Voice Treatment for people with Parkinson's: audit of outcomes in a routine clinic. International journal of language & communication disorders. 2015;50(2):215-25.

Duffy JR. Motor Speech disorders-E-Book: Substrates, differential diagnosis, and management: Elsevier Health Sciences; 2013.

Levy ES, Moya-Galé G, Chang YHM, Freeman K, Forrest K, Brin MF, et al. The effects of intensive speech treatment on intelligibility in Parkinson's disease: a randomised controlled trial. EClinicalMedicine. 2020;24:100429.

Moya-Galé G, Levy ES. Parkinson’s disease-associated dysarthria: prevalence, impact and management strategies. Research and Reviews in Parkinsonism. 2019;9:9-16.

Altmann LJ, Troche MS. High-level language production in Parkinson's disease: a review. Parkinson’s Disease. 2011;2011.

Fabbri M, Guimarães I, Cardoso R, Coelho M, Guedes LC, Rosa MM, et al. Speech and voice response to a levodopa challenge in late-stage Parkinson’s disease. Frontiers in neurology. 2017;8:432.

Whitfield JA, Goberman AM. Speech motor sequence learning: acquisition and retention in Parkinson disease and normal aging. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research. 2017;60(6):1477-92.

Arnold C, Gehrig J, Gispert S, Seifried C, Kell CA. Pathomechanisms and compensatory efforts related to Parkinsonian speech. NeuroImage: Clinical. 2014;4:82-97.

Pinto S, Thobois S, Costes N, Le Bars D, Benabid AL, Broussolle E, et al. Subthalamic nucleus stimulation and dysarthria in Parkinson’s disease: a PET study. Brain. 2004;127(3):602-15.

Zanini S, Tavano A, Fabbro F. Spontaneous language production in bilingual Parkinson’s disease patients: Evidence of greater phonological, morphological and syntactic impairments in native language. Brain and language. 2010;113(2):84-9.

Colman KS, Koerts J, van Beilen M, Leenders KL, Post WJ, Bastiaanse R. The impact of executive functions on verb production in patients with Parkinson's disease. cortex. 2009;45(8):930-42.

Starkstein SE, Preziosi TJ, Berthier ML, Bolduc PL, Mayberg HS, Robinson RG. Depression and cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease. Brain. 1989;112(5):1141-53.

Costa A, Peppe A, Carlesimo G, Pasqualetti P, Caltagirone C. Major and minor depression in Parkinson's disease: a neuropsychological investigation. European Journal of Neurology. 2006;13(9):972-80.

Hartelius L, Svensson P. Speech and swallowing symptoms associated with Parkinson’s disease and multiple sclerosis: a survey. Folia phoniatrica et logopaedica. 1994;46(1):9-17.

Illes J, Metter E, Hanson W, Iritani S. Language production in Parkinson's disease: Acoustic and linguistic considerations. Brain and language. 1988;33(1):146-60.

Murray LL, Lenz LP. Productive syntax abilities in Huntington's and Parkinson's diseases. Brain and Cognition. 2001;46(1-2):213-9.

Henry JD, Crawford JR. Verbal fluency deficits in Parkinson's disease: a meta-analysis. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS. 2004;10(4):608.

Coleman MR, Davis MH, Rodd JM, Robson T, Ali A, Owen AM, et al. Towards the routine use of brain imaging to aid the clinical diagnosis of disorders of consciousness. Brain. 2009;132(9):2541-52.

Jones HN. Prosody in Parkinson's disease. Perspectives on Neurophysiology and Neurogenic Speech and Language Disorders. 2009;19(3):77-82.

Pell MD, Cheang HS, Leonard CL. The impact of Parkinson’s disease on vocal-prosodic communication from the perspective of listeners. Brain and language. 2006;97(2):123-34.

Kent RD, Rosenbek JC. Prosodic disturbance and neurologic lesion. Brain and language. 1982;15(2):259-91.

Pell MD, Leonard CL. Facial expression decoding in early Parkinson's disease. Cognitive Brain Research. 2005;23(2-3):327-40.

Lloyd A. Comprehension of prosody in Parkinson's disease. Cortex. 1999;35(3):389-402.

Holtgraves T, Cadle C. Communication impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease: Challenges and solutions. Research and Reviews in Parkinsonism. 2016;6:45-55.

Montemurro S, Mondini S, Signorini M, Marchetto A, Bambini V, Arcara G. Pragmatic language disorder in Parkinson’s disease and the potential effect of cognitive reserve. Frontiers in psychology. 2019;10:1220.

McNamara P, Durso R. Pragmatic communication skills in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Brain and language. 2003;84(3):414-23.

Most read articles by the same author(s)