Evaluation of micronutrients and vitamins in patients diagnosed with osteoarthritis
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Objective: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease, a leading cause of pain and disability worldwide. The hallmark of OA is pathological changes of the joint structure, such as cartilage erosion and synovial inflammation. The study aimed to evaluate the micronutrients and vitamins in patients diagnosed with osteoarthritis (OA) in Edo State, Nigeria.
Material and Methods: A total of 300 patients comprising one hundred and fifty OA subjects and 150 non-osteoarthritis subjects were recruited for this study. The levels of micronutrients (Ca, Cu, Zn, Se ) were analyzed using AAS, while Vitamin D and K were measured using HPLC and spectrophotometer, respectively.
Results: The levels of copper, zinc, calcium, and vitamin K were significantly lower (p<0.05) except vitamin D (p>0,05) among osteoarthritis than non-osteoarthritis subjects. The selenium level was markedly higher in osteoarthritis than non- osteoarthritis subjects (p<0.05). The levels of trace elements were positively correlated with vitamin D, selenium(r= 0.23, p<0.05), calcium(r= 0.35, p<0.05), copper( r= 0.09, p>0.05). Blood levels of vitamin D, K, and zinc were negatively correlated with age. Vitamin D(r= -0.01, p>0.05), vitamin K(r = -0.02, p>0.05) and zinc(r = - 0.01, p>0.05).
Conclusion: Exposure to free radicals may be a predisposing factor to impaired synthesis of antioxidants that might be involved in the mechanical induction of osteoarthritis. Therefore, it is believed that strict metabolic control delays the development of late complications in osteoarthritis (OA). Therefore, adequate supplementation of trace elements and vitamins (D, K) in diet should be encouraged to lower the risk associated with osteoarthritis.
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