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Objective: Nutritional status plays an important role in defense against infection. This study aimed to investigate the effect of the prognostic nutritional index (PNI), which consists of inflammation and nutritional markers, on prognosis and survival in patients with severe COVID-19 infection.
Material and Methods: Data were retrospectively collected by screening the files of 146 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 infection in 2020 and 2021. The PNI values of the patients were calculated using the obtained data. The cut-off value of PNI was determined with the receiver operating characteristic analysis. Multivariate and univariate analyses were undertaken to evaluate the prognostic value of PNI and its relationship with clinical features and overall survival (OS) in patients with severe COVID-19 infection.
Results: The study included a total of 146 patients, of whom 83 (60%) were male, and 55 (39.9%) were female. The mean age was 62 years. The cut-off value of PNI was 45. PNI was found to be associated with prognosis in both univariate and multivariate analyses. Survival and prognosis were statistically significantly better in the group with a PNI higher than the cut-off value (P<0.005).
Conclusion: PNI was determined to have independent prognostic value and predict OS in severe COVID-19 infection. The results showed that COVID-19 infection was more severe and had a worse prognosis in the patients with a low PNI (<45). Based on the measurement of simple, inexpensive, and easily available biomarkers, PNI can be beneficial in clinical practice.
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