Medical Science and Discovery <p><span style="font-family: Arial; font-size: small;"><strong>Medical Science and Discovery</strong> (ISSN: 2148-6832) is an international open access, peer-reviewed scientific research journal that provides rapid evaluation of articles in all disciplines of Medical Sciences.&nbsp;</span></p> Lycia Press London UK en-US Medical Science and Discovery 2148-6832 <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> Bacterial contamination of propofol vials: The second report from Turkey <p><strong>Objective: </strong>In this study, we look at the case report of an outbreak of sepsis in patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy or colonoscopy during three consecutive days. Twelve patients had diagnostic procedures in the endoscopy unit between 05 May 2018 and 07 May 2018. Of the 12 patients, three had upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, six had a colonoscopy, and three had a combination of two procedures. Within two days of discharge, five patients diagnosed with SIRS and referred with fever as the major sign were hospitalized to the infectious diseases clinic. In our Endoscopy Unit, media, drug, and material cultures were taken for microbiological analysis, and microbial agents were searched. Growth was detected only in the propofol drawn into the syringe that was used on the patient. This study highlights the importance of strict compliance with aseptic injection guidance and constant analysis of microbiological data</p> Zeynep Ergenc Hasan Ergenç Fatih Bostancı Fuat Ekiz Gulşah Baycelebi Feyzi Gökosmanoğlu Copyright (c) 2022 Zeynep Ergenc, Hasan Ergenç, Fatih Bostancı, Fuat Ekiz, Gulşah Baycelebi, Feyzi Gökosmanoğlu 2022-11-28 2022-11-28 9 11 639 642 10.36472/msd.v9i11.835 A cytomegalovirus induced cavitary pneumonia case in a patient with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura under corticosteroid treatment <p><strong>Objective: </strong>Cytomegalovirus infection is common in the neonatal period, during childhood, while in adults, it is encountered in immunosuppressed patients. CMV infection is a serious cause of mortality. CMV pneumonitis is seen most frequently in adults, even if ganciclovir treatment is given prophylactically after stem cell transplantation and it is seen at least after kidney transplantation. In this article, we present a case of severe cavitary pneumonia that develops in a patient with prolonged prednisolone therapy due to ITP.</p> Deniz İncaman Mahmut Çınar Copyright (c) 2022 Deniz İncaman, Mahmut Çınar 2022-11-28 2022-11-28 9 11 643 645 10.36472/msd.v9i11.838 Effect of Covid-19 Pandemic on Surgical Pathology and Cytopathology referrals for Detection of Malignancy <p><strong>Objective: </strong>This study aims to investigate the effect of the pandemic on the detection of diseases through the materials sent to the pathology laboratory, especially the malignant patient group.</p> <p><strong>Material and Methods:</strong> According to official data, the first Covid-19 patient was detected in our country on March 11 2020. All materials that came to the pathology laboratory between 11 March-10 April 2020 and 11 March-10 April 2019 were included into the study. The age, gender, material and diagnoses of the patients were recorded. The pre-pandemic period and post-pandemic period were analyzed statistically.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Cases divided into five diagnostic groups as benign(92.9%), malignant(2.8%), pre-malignant(2%), atypia of uncertain significance(1.4%) and inadequate(0.9%). Although a numerical decrease was detected in all groups, statistically significant decrease was detected in the benign(p=0.001), malignant(p=0.001), and atypia of uncertain significance(p=0.047). According to the types of materials, the first five materials most frequently sent before the pandemic are smears(31.3%), gastric biopsy(18%), curettage(9%), gallbladder resections(5.2%), and skin biopsies(4.5%). After the pandemic, smears(29.8%), stomach biopsies(17.6%), curettage(10.2%), gallbladder(5.2%) and appendectomies(5.2%) are respectively. Materials with statistically significant reductions were skin biopsies(p=0.006), thyroid fine needle aspiration biopsies(p=0.018), and abortions(p=0.025).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> It can be argued that the unknown and devastating effect of the pandemic is felt intensely, especially in malignant group, where early diagnosis and treatment are important. We would like to emphasize the necessity of putting B plans in global events such as pandemics to prevent any disruption in cancer screening programs in these special groups.</p> Gülden Taşova Yılmaz Copyright (c) 2022 Gülden Taşova Yılmaz 2022-11-16 2022-11-16 9 11 614 617 10.36472/msd.v9i11.833 Evaluation of coronary arteries stenosis by computed tomography angiography in district Faisalabad <p><strong>Objective: </strong>This study was conducted to investigate the accuracy and precision of computed tomography angiography for assessing significant coronary artery stenosis in district Faisalabad.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> The data was collected from the Radiology department of Shifa International hospital Faisalabad. Sixty patients (40-80 years of age) were assessed through computed tomography to evaluate coronary heart disease. Data was collected by using a close-ended self-modified questionnaire and analyzed by SPSS V22.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The findings of this study showed that the incidence of coronary heart disease patients was 34 (56.67%) out of 60. Among the affected patients, 39 (65%) were male, and 21 (35%) were female. Based on the evaluation, most of the affected patients were under (50-60) years of age. The percentage of coronary arteries stenosis varies as the left anterior-descending artery LAD had higher stenosis (41.67%) among others; left main LM (16.67%), left-circumflex artery LCX (20%), and right-coronary artery RCA (21.67%) in all affected patients.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> It was presumed that computed tomography angiography precisely distinguishes the presence and finding of coronary stenosis and was additionally pronounced the best quality level. Based on coronary arteries, stenosis of LAD was the most commonly reported in diseased patients. Other arteries stenosis can also increase the risk of CHD in patients. </p> Abdul Maajid Khokhar Wazooha Habib Copyright (c) 2022 Abdul Maajid Khokhar, Wazooha Habib 2022-11-19 2022-11-19 9 11 618 622 10.36472/msd.v9i11.834 Effects of the Fear of COVID-19 on Professional Perception among Nursing Students: A Cross-sectional Study <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The impact of a pandemic on psychological health is an essential factor in determining professional perception. This study aims to evaluate the fear of COVID-19 and the perception of the nursing profession and examine the relationship between them.</p> <p><strong>Material and Methods:</strong> This study was conducted as a cross-sectional design using self-report questionnaires distributed to 976 nursing students in Turkey.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The findings showed that students’ COVID-19 fear levels in the present study were moderate, and their perceptions of the nursing profession were positive. There was a weak and positive correlation between the students' COVID-19 fear and the total score averages of the Nursing Profession Perception Scale.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> There was a two-way relationship between professional perception and fear of COVID-19. The education programs need to be ready to prepare future nurses to deal with future novel pandemics and increase the perception of the profession.</p> Nihal Taşkıran Süreyya Bulut Copyright (c) 2022 Nihal Taşkıran, Süreyya Bulut 2022-11-19 2022-11-19 9 11 623 630 10.36472/msd.v9i11.830 Measuring fall risk in patients hospitalized in palliative care services and factors affecting nutritional risk <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The study was conducted to determine the fall risk of patients hospitalized in the palliative care services of state hospitals affiliated to Bursa health directorate and to determine the differences between the groups with and without malnutrition risk.</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> The sample of the study, which was planned as a descriptive study, consisted of consecutive (n=573) patients over 65 years of age who were hospitalized in the palliative care services of public hospitals affiliated to Bursa Health Directorate in the first six months of 2022. The Itaki Fall Risk Scale (19 questions), which will be used to determine the study data, socio-demographic and clinical data of patients (13 questions), fall risk and fall event (13 questions), and fall risk score (for patients aged 17 and over), Nutritional risk collected using the test. Statistical analysis of the data obtained was done using the frequency and percentage, chi-square test in SPSS for Windows 18.0 program.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The number of hospitalized patients during the time we worked in palliative care services was 752. Of these, 573 people over the age of 65 were included in our study. The median age of the group aged 65-100 years is 80. 53.2% were female, 46.8% were male. 92% of them had at least one chronic disease. The three most common chronic diseases were HT, Alzheimer's and Cerebrovascular Disease, respectively. A statistically significant difference was observed in the scoring of COPD, Alzheimer's and pressure ulcers in the groups with and without nutritional risk, respectively.(p&lt;0.001, p&lt;0.001, p&lt;0.001)</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Malnutrition, falls, and bedsores can be prevented early in patients screened with appropriate scales. In this way, it may be possible to prevent the burden of disease on the caregiver, the society, and the state.</p> Salih Metin Copyright (c) 2022 Salih Metin 2022-11-20 2022-11-20 9 11 631 635 10.36472/msd.v9i11.839 Use of Ocudox™ or hypochlorous acid to inactivate SARS-CoV-2 as an alternative to alcohol-based products <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The main route of entry of SARS-CoV-2 which responsible of COVID-19 is through the nasal, oral, or conjunctival mucosa and droplets or aerosols transmit the virus. Even if transmission through fomites is considered unlikely, hand hygiene is important to minimize this and other infections, especially in certain scenarios as healthcare facilities and crowded places as public transport or social events. </p> <p><strong>Material and methods:</strong> In this study, we assess and compare the virucidal efficacy of HOCl solutions against SARS-CoV-2 at different time-points. a nasopharyngeal swab collected from an 89-year-old male patient during March 2020 in Catalonia, Spain (GISEAD ID EPI_ISL_510689). The virus was propagated in Vero E6 cells (ATCC CRL-1586) cultured in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle medium (DMEM). A total of 24 plastic plates (35 mm SPL Ref. PLC20035) for the first study, and 12 plates for the second one, were prepared. One day before titration, 96-well plates were prepared with Vero E6 cells. The day of titration, two replicates of five 10-fold serial dilutions of each sample were performed. Plates were incubated at 37°C and 5% CO2 for 7 days, and afterward, SARS-CoV-2-induced cytopathic effect (CPE) was determined under light microscope</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The virucidal effect by means of TCID50/mL found after HOCl treatment at different concentrations and times tested. Logarithmic reduction (logR) and the correspondent percentage of inactivation (%) were calculated compared to the untreated controls (desiccated SARS-CoV-2 with water or media). All tested concentrations were able to partially inhibit SARS-CoV-2</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Our studies showed that HOCl products represent a valid virucidal alternative to inactivate SARS-CoV-2 potentially present in skin or surfaces.</p> Cristina Lorca-Oró Núria Roca Carmen Gomez Martín Xavier Abad Copyright (c) 2022 Cristina Lorca-Oró, Núria Roca, Carmen Gomez Martín, Xavier Abad 2022-11-29 2022-11-29 9 11 636 638 10.36472/msd.v9i11.843 The Experiences of Intensive Care Nurses in Caring for COVID-19 Patients: A review of the literature <p><strong>Objective: </strong>Intensive care nurses have a critical role in fighting COVID-19. They have been on the front lines to provide high-quality and safe patient care in these facilities. However, the covid-19 pandemic has made their work more challenging. As a result, healthcare workers' physical and mental well-being has affected their ability to offer quality care. Based on these arguments, there is a shortage of empirical research, especially in intensive care nurses’ experiences caring for COVID-19 patients. However, further investigation is needed better to understand these concerns from the nurses’ perspective.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To comprehensively review, describe, and explore the experiences and perceptions of nurses working in an ICU during the COVID-19 global pandemic and their assessments of how these experiences have impacted their personal and professional lives. Material and Methods: The following seven electronic databases were searched systematically to gain relevant studies: CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, MEDLINE, PubMed, the Cochrane Library and Web of Science. The literature review was the methodology guide for this study. This review used the PICOS (population, intervention, outcomes, and study design) model to formulate research questions and a PRISMA flow diagram to screen and select relevant studies. Eligible studies are written in the English language and are peer-reviewed. The methodological quality was assessed using the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) critical appraisal checklist for qualitative studies, while the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT) was used to evaluate mixed methods designs. The narrative synthesis techniques were used to present the findings.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A total of 693 records have been screened, and only eight studies were finally included: six studies used qualitative approaches while two used mixed methods design approach. The eight studies were undertaken in SEVEN different geographic areas (Hong Kong, Iraqi Kurdistan, Singapore, Qatar, Australia, USA, Sweden). The eight studies recruited 420 registered nurses, of whom 67% were male (281) and 33% were female (139) aged between 20 to 60 years, and the mean of their experience was eight years. The review had four different themes from the analysis. The finding of the eight included studies related to the RN's experiences, which include psychological distress (depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder); stressful work environment.; experiences with personal protective equipment (PPE); moral resilience, sense of pride, and commitment.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> ICU nurses may be considered a particularly vulnerable group of people. They reported increasing workloads in stressful and precarious situations and a challenge in their ability to make decisions independently. There is a need to explore additional aspects of their encounters further when caring for patients during the pandemic by going deeper into areas of their lives relevant to their experiences to understand the aspects that may not be addressed through quantitative methods.</p> Khalidah Mobarki Copyright (c) 2022 Khalidah Mobarki 2022-11-15 2022-11-15 9 11 607 613 10.36472/msd.v9i11.837