Medical Science and Discovery https://medscidiscovery.com/index.php/msd <p><span style="font-family: Arial; font-size: small;"><strong>Medical Science and Discovery</strong> (ISSN: 2148-6832) is an international open access, peer-reviewed scientific research journal that provides rapid evaluation of articles in all disciplines of Medical Sciences.&nbsp;</span></p> Lycia Press London UK en-US Medical Science and Discovery 2148-6832 <p><a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/</a></p> Coronavirus and SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic Diseases https://medscidiscovery.com/index.php/msd/article/view/421 <p>Coronaviruses which are a large family of viruses&nbsp; lead to upper-respiratory diseases in the especially respiratory system and enteric, hepatic and neurological systems with different severity in human as well as a wide variety of animals. &nbsp;Coronaviruses involved in four genera, and beta-CoVs are the most important group and the most highly pathogenic viruses against humans such as Severe Acute Respiratory Disease (SARS) -CoV-2. SARS-CoV-2 is the third quite pathogenic human coronavirus, and can pass through animals to human or human to human due to capable of cross the species barrier into the human populations. Up to 2 July, 2020, coronavirus cases are 10,720,755 and deaths number are 517,005. Many variety mammalians groups such as pigs, cows, chicken, dogs, cats and human are harbor for CoVs. Among them, especially bats are very important for harbor and enhance the change of interspecies transmission of the viruses. According to SARS-CoV-2 symptoms, it is change to asymptomatic forms to respiratory failure and systemic manifestations such as sepsis, septic shock and multiple organ dysfunctions syndrome. For SARS-CoV-2 inactivation way is by lipid solvents including 75% of ether, 80% of ethanol, 75% of isopropanol, chlorine containing disinfectant, peroxyacetic acid, and chloroform except for chlorhexidine, alkaline (pH˃ 12) or acidic (pH ˂3) conditions, formalin and glutaraldehyde treatments. It is taken community measures against SAR-CoV-2 to control the spread of infection and diseases. To SARS CoV-2, there has been no vaccine and specific anti-viral drugs so far. Therefore, public health measures are considered as an effective tool for community. For this aim, hand hygiene, use of mask, hospital environment, droplet, airborne and contact precautions, institutional safeguard and standard measures should be used.</p> Ayhan Güler Ceren Başkan Belgin Sırıken Copyright (c) 2020-09-25 2020-09-25 7 9 617 624 10.36472/msd.v7i9.421 A single center study of oral mucosal lesions in a Turkish population during 12 years period https://medscidiscovery.com/index.php/msd/article/view/408 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The prevalence of oral mucosal lesions, together with information on the risk habits associated with oral health, such as tobacco and alcohol use, can help in planning future oral health studies and screening programs.</p> <p><strong>Material and Methods:</strong> This study presents the findings of 805 oral mucosal biopsies from patients, received over twelve years period. The cases represent 0.6 per-cent of the total number of reports examined (130.680). The data were revised and compiled for diagnosis site, age, and sex. The patients were divided into nine age groups according to decades. The classification was modified and divided into eleven main groups</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Connective tissue lesions formed the largest group of diagnoses (24.4per cent) followed by white lesions (17.8 %per cent), verrucal-papillary lesions (15.4%per cent), red-blue lesions (14%per cent), ulcerous lesions (12.2%per cent), periodontal diseases (10%per cent), lymphoid tissue lesions (1.3%per cent), other tumors (2%per cent), pigmented lesions (0.6%per cent) only 1 metabolic disease (cherubism) (0.1per cent). Approximately 60 %per cent of the biopsies were from the second group patients with an almost equal distribution among sexes. The predominant site of the biopsies was gingiva (28%per cent) followed by lips (19.2%per cent).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> &nbsp;The majority of the lesions were in the category of reactive and inflammatory lesions with most occurring in the thirty age group (31-40 age) that represents permanent dentition. These results suggest that the difficulties in maintaining oral hygiene or the presence of trauma may be the primary factor in mucosal lesions occurring in the permanent dentition period.</p> Ayşegül Saygın Ömer Fahrettin Göze Hatice Reyhan Eğilmez Copyright (c) 2020-09-21 2020-09-21 7 9 625 634 10.36472/msd.v7i9.408 Prognostic value of baseline and posttreatment neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma receiving chemoradiotherapy https://medscidiscovery.com/index.php/msd/article/view/414 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of baseline and posttreatment neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) receiving chemoradiotherapy (CRT).</p> <p><strong>Material and methods:</strong> Ninety-two HNSCC patients who received adjuvant or primary radiotherapy (RT) between September 2014 and December 2019 were assessed retrospectively. Surgery was performed on 24 (26.1%) patients. Eight patients (8.7%) received induction chemotherapy (CT), 63 patients (68.5%) concomitant CT and 17 (19.5%) patients received adjuvant CT.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The median follow-up time was 19 months (range 1-61 months). The median overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were 16 and 13 months, respectively. High baseline NLR level was found to be significantly associated with advanced T stage. Survival was significantly poor if baseline NLR cut-off was above 2.7. No significant correlation was revealed between post-RT NLR, baseline PLR and post-RT PLR and OS. Advanced T stage, presence of metastasis and high post-RT PLR were found to be significant factors that decrease PFS.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> High baseline NLR level in HNSCC receiving CRT/RT was strongly associated with advanced T stage and poor prognosis. However, well designed, larger studies with longer follow-up are warranted.</p> Gülhan Güler Avcı Ipek Pınar Aral Copyright (c) 2020-09-25 2020-09-25 7 9 635 641 10.36472/msd.v7i9.414 Inflammatory biomarkers in the young stroke population https://medscidiscovery.com/index.php/msd/article/view/419 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> Studies showed that cerebral ischemia due to arterial occlusion is related to local inflammation. Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio (N/L)&nbsp; and Monocyte to high density lipoprotein Cholesterol&nbsp; Ratio (M/H) are two biomarkers that are shown to be increased in inflammation. These biomarkers can be used to determine the risk for atherosclerotic ischemic stroke. Increased Homocysteinemia&nbsp; (Hcy) is also a risk factor for ischemic stroke, especially in the young population. There is insufficient data in the literature about the correlation of these biomarkers in young stroke patients.</p> <p>We aimed to show if these biomarkers can be related to atherothrombotic cerebrovascular disease in the young population to provide information for young people to stroke risk.</p> <p><strong>Study design and method</strong>: This retrospective study included 43 atherosclerotic ischemic young stroke patients,&nbsp; age between 18- 55 years and age/ gender matched 42 healthy control group.&nbsp; Control group were enrolled from patients who were admitted to our outpatient clinics with headaches, having normal examinations and no other diseases.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The ratios of N/L&nbsp; and M/H&nbsp; were both higher in the stroke group (p=0.008 and p=0.011 respectively), but the gender subanalysis showed there was no significance in the males. When the patients were sub-grouped as having hyper Hcy or not; these ratios did not show any significance.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Inflammatory biomarkers should be interpreted carefully by concerning the age and the gender of the patients. Further studies with large sample groups are necessary for the biomarkers of young stroke population.</p> Mustafa Emir Tavşanlı Elif Ünal Copyright (c) 2020-09-25 2020-09-25 7 9 642 646 10.36472/msd.v7i9.419 Leiomyosarcoma of the extremity deep soft tissues: analysis of factors predictive of survival and imaging features https://medscidiscovery.com/index.php/msd/article/view/420 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> &nbsp;This study aimed to report the visual outcomes of deeply located Leiomyosarcoma (LMS) in the extremities and treatment results.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The histological diagnosis of each case was confirmed by the pathology council and only cases with LMS localized in the deep soft tissue of the limb were included in this study. Treatment-related factors such as all the visual features of the tumor, type of therapy, local and distant recurrence, follow-up time, and outcome were analyzed. Overall survival time was determined.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Evaluation was made of 17 patients, comprising 11 females and 6 males with a mean age of 64.35 years (range, 52-75 years). The localization of the primary lesion was the lower extremity in 14 patients (82.34%), and the upper extremity in 3 (17.34%). The average size of the lesions was 8.23 cm (range, 3-22 cm). All lesions were staged according to the TNM Classification of soft tissue sarcomas, as 3 (17.64%) patients in stage IIA, 9 (52.94%) in stage IIB, and 5 (29.41%) in stage IV. In the radiological features of the lesions, only two patients had scattered calcification and osseous pathology in the tumor tissue. The signal properties obtained in other soft tissue sarcomas on magnetic resonance images (MRI) were also present in these lesions. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was applied to 5 of 17 patients, and surgical and adjuvant radiotherapy was applied to the remaining 12 patients. These patients were followed up for an average of 66 (23-111) months. Local recurrence occurred in 3 patients. The five-year disease-free survival rate was 58.8%, and the disease-survival rate was 64.7%.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The most important result of this study was that the only effective factor on overall survival is tumor size (p &lt;0.001). Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was not seen to have any significant effect on this disease.</p> Rana Kapukaya Osman Ciloglu Copyright (c) 2020-09-29 2020-09-29 7 9 647 651 10.36472/msd.v7i9.420