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Objective: The cementing technique employed in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) significantly influences the penetration of cement into the bone, ultimately affecting the stability of the joint. This study aimed to assess the impact of tourniquet usage on tibial cement penetration, operative time, bleeding, and functional outcomes following TKA.
Materials and Methods: A retrospective evaluation was conducted on 103 patients who had undergone TKA and had a minimum follow-up period of 2 years. The patients were categorized into three groups: Group 1 utilized a tourniquet throughout the entire surgery, Group 2 released the tourniquet immediately after prosthesis implantation, just before cement hardening, and Group 3 did not employ a tourniquet at any stage of the procedure. Tibial cement penetration was assessed via X-ray examination, following the Knee Society Scoring System criteria. Operative time, bleeding levels, and Lysholm and Oxford scores were compared among the groups. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 22.0 software.
Results: In Group 1, bone penetration of cement was significantly higher than in both Group 2 and Group 3, except for zone 1 in the anterior-posterior (AP) view (p < 0.017). Group 3 exhibited significantly less bleeding compared to the other groups (p < 0.017). There was no significant difference in terms of bleeding between Group 1 and Group 2. The operation time was significantly shorter in Group 1 compared to the other groups (p < 0.017). The mean cement penetration depth across all groups was measured at 2.44 ± 0.27 mm. Bleeding volume and operation time did not have a significant effect on mean cement penetration (p > 0.05). Additionally, there were no significant differences observed between the groups in terms of the Lysholm and Oxford functional test results (p > 0.017).
Conclusions: The use of a tourniquet was found to increase cement penetration and reduce operation time; however, it did not have a significant impact on reducing bleeding. Based on our findings, we recommend considering a shorter tourniquet time and implementing effective bleeding control measures to mitigate potential complications associated with tourniquet usage.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
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