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Objective: We aim to identify appendiceal neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) seen after acute appendicitis and investigate their incidence in patients with laparoscopic or open appendectomy surgery. Here we have shaped the characteristic features of the tumor according to the 2010 classification rating of The World Health Organization (WHO) (surgical margin, invasion, grading, TNM stages) and also explored the disease-free survival in these patients.
Material and Methods: This is the medical record of the patient with 7266 appendectomy retrospectively evaluated, and with these examples in histopathological analysis, a total of 43 patients were diagnosed with appendicitis NETs and included in the study. Age, gender, prediction of the surgical team during the operation, location of the tumor, WHO grade, depth of invasion, positive surgical margin, tumor size, TNM stage, and postoperative survival of these patients were analyzed retrospectively.
Results: In this study, the incidence of appendiceal (NETs) was found to be 0.59% among 7,266 patients. Out of the 42 patients with appendiceal NETs, 27 were female and 16 were male. The mean age of the patients was 33.65 years (range: 11–78). The diagnosis was aided by clinical examination, ultrasound, and abdominal computerized tomography (CT) imaging. Most patients were initially diagnosed with appendicitis, and surgical interventions, including laparoscopic and conventional appendectomy, were performed. The pathological analysis confirmed appendicitis with NETs, classified according to the WHO 2010 recommendation. The majority of patients had well-differentiated NETs (G1 or G2). Surgical resection achieved negative radial margins, and no pathological signs were detected during follow-up colonoscopies. At a median follow-up of 70.2 months, all patients remained disease-free and alive.
Conclusion: Appendiceal neuroendocrine tumors are rare but distinct entities that require a multidisciplinary approach for diagnosis and management. Surgical resection is the primary treatment, with systemic therapies reserved for advanced cases. The prognosis is generally favorable, with better outcomes seen in well-differentiated tumors. Long-term follow-up is crucial. Further research is needed to improve understanding and optimize treatment strategies for these tumors.
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