Evaluation of Perfusion and Function in Cardiac Radionuclide Imaging in Cases of Heart Failure with Mid-Range Ejection Fraction

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Sule Ceylan


Objective: Heart failure with mid-range ejection fraction (HFmrEF) poses a significant clinical challenge due to its diverse etiology and variable prognosis. Patients with HFmrEF exhibit an intermediate level of left ventricular dysfunction, making their management and prognosis less well-defined compared to those with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) or preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a common underlying cause of HFmrEF and can further exacerbate myocardial dysfunction under stress conditions. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the change in left ventricular ejection fraction with stress in the presence of coronary artery disease in cases of heart failure with mid-range ejection fraction.

Material and Methods: In this retrospective study, we included 507 patients diagnosed with coronary artery disease and an left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) of 41-49% measured by echocardiography. All patients underwent a treadmill exercise test using the Bruce protocol, with progressively increasing speed and incline. Myocardial perfusion was assessed using stress gated myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS), and fixed and reversible defects were identified in cases of coronary artery disease. Cardiac scintigraphic images were acquired from the right anterior oblique to the left posterior oblique. We calculated post-stress LVEF and the percentage decrease in LVEF to evaluate cardiac function.

Results: Resting LVEF was measured as 46 (43-50), while post-stress LVEF was 35 (25-47) in all patients. Myocardial perfusion was evaluated using stress gated MPS in all patients, with 200 (39.5%) patients showing both fixed and reversible perfusion defects. The rate of decrease in LVEF due to stress was significantly higher in patients with reversible perfusion defects (15.90 (6-30.43) vs. 28.26 (24-43.18), p: 0.0005). Post-stress LVEF was lower in patients with reversible perfusion defects (40 (31-47) vs. 33 (25-38), p: 0.0005).

Conclusion: In cases of impaired left ventricular perfusion, quantitative calculations of LVEF may vary, and their reliability may decrease as the ejection fraction decreases under stress conditions. Clinicians should consider this variability in the follow-up of patients with heart failure and mid-range ejection fraction.


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How to Cite
Ceylan, S. (2024). Evaluation of Perfusion and Function in Cardiac Radionuclide Imaging in Cases of Heart Failure with Mid-Range Ejection Fraction. Medical Science and Discovery, 11(3), 85–88. https://doi.org/10.36472/msd.v11i3.1135
Research Article
Received 2024-02-23
Accepted 2024-03-17
Published 2024-03-19


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