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Objective: Branchial anomalies are congenital pathologies that are seen in the lateral region of the neck and are generally benign. The branchial clefts develop in the 2nd-7th weeks of fetal life as embryonal development. The branchial anomalies are caused by non-disappearance, abnormal development and, incomplete emerger of the branchial clefts and pockets during embryonal development. The branchial anomalies are generally seen as the cyst. The most common cyst was the second branchial cleft cyst with 95%. Their diameter is usually a few centimeters.
Case: A 37-year old male patient was admitted to the hospital because of a swelling on the left side of his neck for four years. Physical examination revealed a mobile cystic mass in level 2 at the upper left jugular region of the neck. The cystic mass and the surrounding lymph nodes were excised and sent to the pathology laboratory. A cystic mass, approximately 5x4x3.5 cm in size, containing cystic areas was observed macroscopically. Microscopically, the cyst was lined with squamous epithelium and contained large lymphocyte groups in the subepithelial area. The case was reported as the branchial cleft cyst.
Conclusion: Branchial cleft cysts should be excised before reaching large sizes, as they may cause pain and pressure on the surrounding tissue. In addition, it should be kept in mind that malignancy may develop from branchial cleft cysts, although rare.
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