Main Article Content
Objective: In this study, we evaluated the effect of depression, anxiety, and stress on pain perception during colposcopy.
Material and methods: This study was performed at the gynecologic oncology department of Lutfi Kirdar Kartal Education and Research Hospital in Istanbul, Turkey between September 2017 and January 2018. After taking informed consent, Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-42) were completed by women who were attended outpatient colposcopy unit. Patients were classified into three groups according to DASS-42 (Group 1: patients without depression, anxiety or stress; Group 2: patients with one or two of depression, anxiety and stress; Group 3: patients with all of depression, anxiety and stress). Patient characteristics were also recorded. The degree of pain perception was evaluated visual analogue scale (VAS) at the end of the procedure. The p values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant.
Results: A total of 116 women were enrolled into this study. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of age, gravidity, parity, number of gynecologic examination, waiting time, BMI, VAS, having a partner, came alone to clinic, level of education, employment, indication of procedure, number of biopsies, ECC presence (p>0.05). There was no difference between the subgroups in terms of VAS. There was negative correlation between groups and VAS (r=-0.195, p=0.036).
Conclusion: According to our findings, depression, anxiety and stress have no impact on pain perception during colposcopy but there is a weak correlation between the absence of depression, anxiety, stress and the pain score.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
2. Church L, Oliver L, Dobie S, Madigan D, Ellsworth A. Analgesia for colposcopy: double-masked, randomized comparison of ibuprofen and benzocaine gel. Obstetrics & Gynecology 2001; 97(1): 5-10.
3. Gajjar K, Martin-Hirsch PP, Bryant A, Owens GL. Pain relief for women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia undergoing colposcopy treatment. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2016, 7.
4. Crawford JR, Henry JD. The Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS): Normative data and latent structure in a large non‐clinical sample. British journal of clinical psychology 2003; 42(2): 111-131.
5. Alan M, Oruc MA, Kurt M, Alan Y, Sanci M. Evaluation of colposcopy results for patients who are HPV DNA positive in KETEM. J Exp Clini Med. 2019; 36(2): 35-42.
6. Kavanagh AM, Broom DH. Women's understanding of abnormal cervical smear test results: a qualitative interview study. Bmj 1997; 314(7091): 1388.
7. O’Connor M, Waller J, Gallagher P, Martin CM, JO’Leary J, D’Arcy T, et al. Exploring women’s sensory experiences of undergoing colposcopy and related procedures: implications for preparatory sensory information provision. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics & Gynecology 2016; 37(4): 137-146.
8. Abdelhakim AM, Samy A, Abbas AM. Effect of music in reducing patient anxiety during colposcopy: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Journal of gynecology obstetrics and human reproduction 2019; 48(10): 855-861.
9. Swancutt DR, Greenfield SM, Wilson S. Women's colposcopy experience and preferences: a mixed methods study. BMC women's health 2008; 8(1): 1-8.
10. Kola S, Walsh JC. Determinants of pre‐procedural state anxiety and negative affect in first‐time colposcopy patients: implications for intervention. European Journal of Cancer Care 2012; 21(4): 469-476.
11. Heinonen A, Tapper AM, Leminen A, Sintonen H, Roine RP. Health-related quality of life and perception of anxiety in women with abnormal cervical cytology referred for colposcopy: an observational study. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 2013; 169(2): 387-391.
12. Galaal K, Bryant A, Deane KH, Al-Khaduri M, Lopes AD. Interventions for reducing anxiety in women undergoing colposcopy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011; CD006013.
13. Spielberger CD, Gorsuch RC, Lushene RE. Manual for the state-trait anxiety inventory, Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologists Press 1970.
14. Baser E, Togrul C, Ozgu E, Esercan A, Caglar M, Gungor T. Effect of pre-procedural state-trait anxiety on pain perception and discomfort in women undergoing colposcopy for cervical cytological abnormalities. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention 2013; 14(7): 4053-4056.
15. Zigmond AS, Snaith RP. The Hospitall anxiety and depression scale. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1983; 67(6): 361–370.
16. Bjelland I, Dahl AA, Haug TT, Neckelmann D. The validity of the hospital anxiety and depression scale. J. Psychosom. Res. 2002; 52: 69–77.