Main Article Content
Objective: The complex disease of colon cancer is impacted by a number of genetic, dietary, and environmental variables. This article investigates the role of heavy metals and trace elements in colon cancer growth pathways. The critical role that trace elements play in numerous physiological processes is the main reason that their presence has such a significant impact on how the body functions.
Material and Methods: In a cross-sectional investigation that was conducted from August 2022 to January 2023, zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), calcium (Ca) , chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), sodium (Na), magnesium (Mg), selenium (Se), mercury (Hg),potassium (K), and iron (Fe) levels were measured in CRC cases.
Results: The average age of the people in the study group was 77.4 ± 28.1. The median level of K, Hg, Cu, and Fe in cancerous tissues was significantly increased than that of healthy tissues (P <0.05). Still, the median of Zn, Cr, Mn, Pb, Na, Se, and Ca was much lower in cancerous tissues (P <0.05) than in non-cancerous tissues.
Conclusion: We found that the amount of some trace elements may depend on the person's gender and how long they have smoked. We found that the amounts of eight elements were much different in cancerous tissues than in healthy ones.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Ferlay J, Steliarova-Foucher E, Lortet-Tieulent J, Rosso S, Coebergh J-WW, Comber H, et al. Cancer incidence and mortality patterns in Europe: estimates for 40 countries in 2012. European journal of cancer. 2013;49(6):1374-403.
Bray F, Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Siegel R, Torre L, Jemal A. Global cancer statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries (vol 68, pg 394, 2018). Ca-a Cancer Journal for Clinicians. 2020;70(4):313-.
Bretthauer M, Løberg M, Wieszczy P, Kalager M, Emilsson L, Garborg K, et al. Effect of colonoscopy screening on risks of colorectal cancer and related death. New England Journal of Medicine. 2022;387(17):1547-56.
Vukobrat-Bijedic Z, Husic-Selimovic A, Sofic A, Bijedic N, Bjelogrlic I, Gogov B, et al. Cancer antigens (CEA and CA 19-9) as markers of advanced stage of colorectal carcinoma. medical archives. 2013;67(6):397.
Rawla P, Sunkara T, Barsouk A. Epidemiology of colorectal cancer: incidence, mortality, survival, and risk factors. Gastroenterology Review/Przegląd Gastroenterologiczny. 2019;14(2):89-103.
Sung H, Ferlay J, Siegel RL, Laversanne M, Soerjomataram I, Jemal A, et al. Global cancer statistics 2020: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries. CA: a cancer journal for clinicians. 2021;71(3):209-49.
Mohandas K. Colorectal cancer in India: controversies, enigmas and primary prevention. Springer; 2011. p. 3-6.
Sohrabi M, Gholami A, Azar MH, Yaghoobi M, Shahi MM, Shirmardi S, et al. Trace element and heavy metal levels in colorectal cancer: comparison between cancerous and non-cancerous tissues. Biological trace element research. 2018;183:1-8.
Rainis T, Maor I, Lanir A, Shnizer S, Lavy A. Enhanced oxidative stress and leucocyte activation in neoplastic tissues of the colon. Digestive diseases and sciences. 2007;52:526-30.
Al Faris NA, Ahmad D. Distribution of trace elements like calcium, copper, iron and zinc in serum samples of colon cancer–A case control study. Journal of King Saud University-Science. 2011;23(4):337-40.
Desai V, Kaler SG. Role of copper in human neurological disorders. The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2008;88(3):855S-8S.
Kipp AP. Selenium in colorectal and differentiated thyroid cancer. Hormones. 2020;19(1):41-6.
Türkdoğan MK, Karapinar HS, Kilicel F. Serum trace element levels of gastrointestinal cancer patients in an endemic upper gastrointestinal cancer region. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology. 2022;72:126978.
Lavilla I, Costas M, Miguel PS, Millos J, Bendicho C. Elemental fingerprinting of tumorous and adjacent non-tumorous tissues from patients with colorectal cancer using ICP-MS, ICP-OES and chemometric analysis. Biometals. 2009;22:863-75.
Juloski JT, Rakic A, Ćuk VV, Ćuk VM, Stefanović S, Nikolić D, et al. Colorectal cancer and trace elements alteration. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology. 2020;59:126451.
Berardi R, Rinaldi S, Caramanti M, Grohè C, Santoni M, Morgese F, et al. Hyponatremia in cancer patients: time for a new approach. Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology. 2016;102:15-25.
Lapidos KA, Woodhouse EC, Kohn EC, Masiero L. Mg++-induced endothelial cell migration: Substratum selectivity and receptor-involvement. Angiogenesis. 2001;4:21-8.
Anastassopoulou J, Theophanides T. Magnesium–DNA interactions and the possible relation of magnesium to carcinogenesis. Irradiation and free radicals. Critical reviews in oncology/hematology. 2002;42(1):79-91.
Rubin H. Central roles of Mg2+ and MgATP2− in the regulation of protein synthesis and cell proliferation: Significance for neoplastic transformation. Advances in cancer research. 2005;93:1-58.
Cobanoglu U, Demir H, Sayir F, Duran M, Mergan D. Some mineral, trace element and heavy metal concentrations in lung cancer. Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP. 2010;11(5):1383-8.
Collery P, Anghileri L, Coudoux P. Magnesium et cancer: Donnees cliniques. Magnesium and cancer: Clinical data) Magn Bull. 1981;3:11-20.
Workeneh BT, Uppal NN, Jhaveri KD, Rondon-Berrios H. Hypomagnesemia in the cancer patient. Kidney360. 2021;2(1):154.
Fuszek P, Lakatos P, Tabak A, Papp J, Nagy Z, Takacs I, et al. Relationship between serum calcium and CA 19-9 levels in colorectal cancer. World journal of gastroenterology: WJG. 2004;10(13):1890.
Kawase T, Orikasa M, Oguro A, Burns D. Possible regulation of epidermal growth factor-receptor tyrosine autophosphorylation by calcium and G proteins in chemically permeabilized rat UMR106 cells. Archives of oral biology. 1999;44(2):157-71.
Alimonti A, Bocca B, Lamazza A, Forte G, Rahimi S, Mattei D, et al. A study on metals content in patients with colorectal polyps. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A. 2008;71(5):342-7.
Saghiri MA, Orangi J, Asatourian A, Gutmann JL, Garcia-Godoy F, Lotfi M, et al. Calcium silicate-based cements and functional impacts of various constituents. Dental materials journal. 2017;36(1):8-18.
Ding M, Shi X. Molecular mechanisms of Cr (VI)-induced carcinogenesis. Oxygen/Nitrogen Radicals: Cell Injury and Disease. 2002:293-300.
Rinaldi L, Barabino G, Klein J-P, Bitounis D, Pourchez J, Forest V, et al. Metals distribution in colorectal biopsies: New insight on the elemental fingerprint of tumour tissue. Digestive and Liver Disease. 2015;47(7):602-7.
Saghiri MA, Asatourian A, Orangi J, Sorenson CM, Sheibani N. Functional role of inorganic trace elements in angiogenesis—Part I: N, Fe, Se, P, Au, and Ca. Critical reviews in oncology/hematology. 2015;96(1):129-42.
Kanayama Y, Tsuji T, Enomoto S, Amano R. Multitracer screening: brain delivery of trace elements by eight different administration methods. Biometals. 2005;18:553-65.
Folknum J. Tumor angingcoisis [JJ. Adv Cancer Res. 1985;43:175-203.
Nasulewicz A, Mazur A, Opolski A. Role of copper in tumour angiogenesis—clinical implications. Journal of trace elements in Medicine and Biology. 2004;18(1):1-8.
Hu Gf. Copper stimulates proliferation of human endothelial cells under culture. Journal of cellular biochemistry. 1998;69(3):326-35.
Lowndes S, Harris A. Copper chelation as an antiangiogenic therapy. Oncology Research Featuring Preclinical and Clinical Cancer Therapeutics. 2004;14(11-12):529-40.
Nelson RL, Davis FG, Sutter E, Sobin LH, Kikendall JW, Bowen P. Body iron stores and risk of colonic neoplasia. JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 1994;86(6):455-60.
Ganz T, Nemeth E. Hepcidin and iron homeostasis. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-Molecular Cell Research. 2012;1823(9):1434-43.
Coussens LM, Werb Z. Inflammation and cancer. Nature. 2002;420(6917):860-7.
Hornik P, Milde D, Trenz Z, Vysloužil K, Stužka V. Colon tissue concentrations of copper, iron, selenium, and zinc in colorectal carcinoma patients. Chemical Papers. 2006;60:297-301.
Lin X, Peng L, Xu X, Chen Y, Zhang Y, Huo X. Connecting gastrointestinal cancer risk to cadmium and lead exposure in the Chaoshan population of Southeast China. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2018;25:17611-9.
Khan F, Momtaz S, Abdollahi M. The relationship between mercury exposure and epigenetic alterations regarding human health, risk assessment and diagnostic strategies. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology. 2019;52:37-47.
Ynalvez R, Gutierrez J, Gonzalez-Cantu H. Mini-review: toxicity of mercury as a consequence of enzyme alteration. Biometals. 2016;29:781-8.
Gregoriadis GC, Apostolidis NS, Romanos AN, Paradellis TP. A comparative study of trace elements in normal and cancerous colorectal tissues. Cancer. 1983;52(3):508-19.
Hanahan D, Weinberg RA. Hallmarks of cancer: the next generation. cell. 2011;144(5):646-74.
Cui R, Shi X-Y. Expression of pyruvate kinase M2 in human colorectal cancer and its prognostic value. International journal of clinical and experimental pathology. 2015;8(9):11393.
Spangler JG, Reid JC. Environmental manganese and cancer mortality rates by county in North Carolina: an ecological study. Biological trace element research. 2010;133:128-35.
Zhang Q, Pan E, Liu L, Hu W, He Y, Xu Q, et al. Study on the relationship between manganese concentrations in rural drinking water and incidence and mortality caused by cancer in Huai’an City. BioMed research international. 2014;2014.
Lin YC, Wei PL, Tsai YT, Wong JH, Chang CM, Wang JY, et al. Pb2+ induced IL‐8 gene expression by extracellular signal‐regulated kinases and the transcription factor, activator protein 1, in human gastric carcinoma cells. Environmental toxicology. 2015;30(3):315-22.
Ruffin MT, Rock CL. Do antioxidants still have a role in the prevention of human cancer? Current oncology reports. 2001;3:306-13.
Ozmen H, Erulas FA, Karatas F, Cukurovali A, Yalcin O. Comparison of the concentration of trace metals (Ni, Zn, Co, Cu and Se), Fe, vitamins A, C and E, and lipid peroxidation in patients with prostate cancer. Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CCLM). 2006;44(2):175-9.
Akiibinu M, Ogundahunsi A, Kareem O, Adesiyan A, Idonije B, Adeniyi F. Trace metals and oxidative metabolic changes in malignant prostate cancer patients. Afr J Biomed Res. 2011;5:102-5.
Clark LC, Combs GF, Turnbull BW, Slate EH, Chalker DK, Chow J, et al. Effects of selenium supplementation for cancer prevention in patients with carcinoma of the skin: a randomized controlled trial. Jama. 1996;276(24):1957-63.
Formigari A, Gregianin E, Irato P. The effect of zinc and the role of p53 in copper‐induced cellular stress responses. Journal of Applied Toxicology. 2013;33(7):527-36.
VanLandingham JW, Fitch CA, Levenson CW. Zinc inhibits the nuclear translocation of the tumor suppressor protein p53 and protects cultured human neurons from copper-induced neurotoxicity. Neuromolecular medicine. 2002;1:171-82.
Xia J, Browning JD, O'Dell BL. Decreased plasma membrane thiol concentration is associated with increased osmotic fragility of erythrocytes in zinc-deficient rats. The Journal of nutrition. 1999;129(4):814-9.
Krishnaswamy K, Prasad M, Krishna T, Annapurna V, Reddy GA. A case study of nutrient intervention of oral precancerous lesions in India. European journal of cancer part B: oral oncology. 1995;31(1):41-8.
Dar NA, Mir MM, Salam I, Malik MA, Gulzar GM, Yatoo GN, et al. Association between copper excess, zinc deficiency, and TP53 mutations in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma from Kashmir Valley, India—a high risk area. Nutrition and cancer. 2008;60(5):585-91.